Human Stratum Corneum Homeostasis: the Relevance of Filaggrin and of Inducers of Filaggrin Production
Filaggrin and loricrin, two key proteins in stratum corneum differentiation, are controlled both at the transcriptional and at the post-translational level. Transcription of loricrin and filaggrin genes is down-regulated in the elderly. Post-translationally, loricrin is cross-linked with Small Proline Rich Proteins and constitutes one of the building blocks of the cornified envelope, whereas the filaggrin precursor, profilaggrin, is de-phosphorylated by ATPases and matures to filaggrin via proteolytic intervention. Upon further proteolysis, filaggrin is digested to aminoacids constituting the pool of free aminoacids in the stratum corneum and the so-called Natural Moisturizing Factor (NMF).
The down-regulation of filaggrin in the elderly and in ichthyosis makes it necessary to identify xenobiotics able to help filaggrin formation. One of such ingredients is Filagrinol, able to activate the ATPases involved in the dephosphorylation of pro-filaggrin as well as to induce histidine incorporation in the stratum granulosum, with beneficial effects on skin hydration and skin well-being.
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